DNA-based testing analyzes celiac-associated genes (static biomarkers in the cell nucleus) inheritable from one or both parents. These genes are unchangeable regardless of antibody production and gluten consumption. Individuals who test positive for celiac genes are at elevated risk to develop symptoms within the gluten intolerance spectrum.
In summary, DNA-based testing helps prevent false negatives.
These genes, direct the immune system to recognize gluten proteins as foreign invaders and mount a harmful inflammatory response.
Targeted Genomics organizes these unique genetic profiles into “Gluten IDs” and presents the information in an illustrative and actionable format that allows you to see your place on the Gluten Intolerance spectrum.
Where DQ2 and DQ8 are present there is potential for an immune response if the body comes in contact with gluten. The size and severity of this response is heavily influenced by coincidental genetic and environmental factors.
Targeted Genomics testing places individuals on a spectrum based on the unique combinations with which these alleles present themselves in the genome. These results can be used both to guide individual treatment and predict potential risk in family members.
Absolutely. The presence of any combination of celiac associated alleles in an individual’s genome indicates an inherited genotype predisposed to gluten intolerance.
Absence of these alleles carries a negative predictive value greater than 90%, enough to rule out a diagnosis of celiac disease. These results provide an alternative to invasive procedures such as small bowel biopsies.
Asymptomatic individuals can still carry these genes and pass them on to family members.
Yes. Even asymptomatic individuals can pass these genes on to their children. Targeted Genomics’ Gluten ID test results include a Family Relevance page placing results in a familial context with recommendations for further testing.
DNA-based testing, on the other hand, analyzes a static biomarker in the cell nucleus. If an inherited DNA biomarker for gluten intolerance is identified that person has elevated potential to develop gluten intolerance but does not confirm the individual is, indeed, gluten intolerant. However, if an individual already showing symptoms of gluten intolerance tests positive for a gluten intolerance DNA biomarker there is a high probability removing gluten from the diet will reduce or even eliminate the symptoms.
In summary DNA-based testing helps prevent false negatives.
HER2-Positive: Predicted to respond to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the > 10% of the tumor showing strong circumferential membrane staining of the HER2 receptors (HER2 hot spots) shows amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Negative: Predicted to be resistant to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the 100% of the tumor showing absence of HER2 receptor staining shows no amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Low: Potential response to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the > 10% of the tumor showing weak to moderate staining of the HER2 receptors shows no amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Low response to anti-HER2 therapy is currently being evaluated by the NSABP-B47 trial.
The Latin turbatio (disturbed) immuno (immune system) describes this process.