DNA-based testing analyzes celiac-associated genes (static biomarkers in the cell nucleus) inheritable from one or both parents. These genes are unchangeable regardless of antibody production and gluten consumption. Individuals who test positive for celiac genes are at elevated risk to develop symptoms within the gluten intolerance spectrum.
In summary, DNA-based testing helps prevent false negatives.
DNA-based testing, on the other hand, analyzes a static biomarker in the cell nucleus. If an inherited DNA biomarker for gluten intolerance is identified that person has elevated potential to develop gluten intolerance but does not confirm the individual is, indeed, gluten intolerant. However, if an individual already showing symptoms of gluten intolerance tests positive for a gluten intolerance DNA biomarker there is a high probability removing gluten from the diet will reduce or even eliminate the symptoms.
In summary DNA-based testing helps prevent false negatives.
HER2-Positive: Predicted to respond to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the > 10% of the tumor showing strong circumferential membrane staining of the HER2 receptors (HER2 hot spots) shows amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Negative: Predicted to be resistant to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the 100% of the tumor showing absence of HER2 receptor staining shows no amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Low: Potential response to anti-HER2 therapy.
DNA extracted from the > 10% of the tumor showing weak to moderate staining of the HER2 receptors shows no amplification of the HER2 gene.
HER2-Low response to anti-HER2 therapy is currently being evaluated by the NSABP-B47 trial.
The Latin turbatio (disturbed) immuno (immune system) describes this process.