Learn the science, history, and facts before starting your Gluten ID journey.
CELIAC GENETICS MADE EASY
The Gluten ID Wheel was designed by Targeted Genomics to make celiac genetic health risk accessible to individuals, families, and physicians with a one time test. Using a simple cheek swab, the Gluten ID i) inheritance and ii) spectrum of risk are identified and reported in an understandable format.
Megiorni F, et al. (2009) "HLA-DQ and risk gradient for celiac disease." Human Immunl 70:55-59.
Celiac disease is believed to have developed over 8,000 years ago when hunter/gatherers began encountering new types of food (including wheat) during the neolithic period agricultural revolution. However it wasn’t until the first century AD that a Greek physician named Aretaeus of Cappadocia identified the symptoms as a disease of the “koelia” or abdomen in Greek. Before the true trigger for celiac disease was identified many treatments and diets were tried, including strict rice, mussel, and even banana diets. It wasn’t until the 1970s-1990s that celiac disease was recognized as an autoimmune disease and genes were pinpointed.
First Century AD Greek physician who identified celiac disease.
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Development and validation of a high throughput next generation sequencing assay from buccal cell DNA as a cost-effective screening method for celiac genetic risk.
Shelly Gunn, Ambica Bhandari, Suman Verma, Harneet Gandhi, Dre’shon Rolle, Lony Lim, Philip Cotter, Mathew Moore.
Gluten ID presented at 2021 Association for Molecular Pathology meeting.
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An estimated 1% of the global population has been diagnosed with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune condition triggered by dietary gluten in individuals who carry HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 (DQ2/DQ8) celiac risk alleles. Clinical diagnosis of active CD is based on symptoms, serologic tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody testing, and characteristic histopathologic changes identified by small intestinal tissue biopsy. The presence of DQ2/DQ8 genes is necessary but not sufficient for development of CD, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of negative DQ2/DQ8 test results is > 90%. Approximately 30-40% of the general population carries specific allelic combinations for DQ2/DQ8 that would place them on a spectrum of risk for CD. However, despite the high NPV of DQ2/DQ8 testing, routine screening of celiac family members and asymptomatic individuals has traditionally been performed by tTG serologic testing and/or small intestinal biopsy. Disadvantages to this approach include false negative results in individuals who are not consuming dietary gluten, and unnecessary healthcare costs associated with repeated testing of asymptomatic individuals. In the current study we developed and validated a low cost, non-invasive, buccal cell DNA-based next generation sequencing (NGS) population screening method for the DQ2/DQ8 alleles.